# Pages 178, 185

**Location:** Chapter 18, very last suggestion in the chapter; and Chapter 19, Appendix

## Suggestion given in the book

After laying out, in Chapter 18, the unambiguous algorithm for converting any expression \(X\) (containing variables \(x,y,\ldots\)) into a bird \(A\) -- made of birds in \(\{S,K,I\}\) -- such that for any \(x,y,\ldots\) one has \(Axy\ldots=X\), the chapter ends with:

*This deterministic procedure can be easily programmed on a computer,
and those of you with home computers who like to work up software
should find it an entertaining and profitable exercise to
write a program to find combinators for any given expression.*

The same suggestion can be imagined right at the end of the next chapter, where a similar procedure is described for birds whose primitive components are taken in the set \(\{B,C,M,I\}\).

*Note*: it was not very common to possess a **home computer** back in 1982.

## The program

The code given here performs the required task. In particular,
it asks for the combinator equation to solve, such as `Axyz=z(xx(Ky))`

,
and returns the expression for \(A\) in terms of the allowed primitive birds
(e.g. `A=(S(K(S(K(SI))))(S(K(S(KK)))(S(S(KS)(S(KK)(SII)))(KK))))`

for the \({S,K,I}\) primitive bird set).

Through command-line parameters either set of primitive birds can be specified, and a debug mode is available. For more information (including the full code) see below.

## Short explanation

The code is composed of two parts: an input validator/parser and the part that actually applies the algorithm (i.e. "the Secret" or its counterpart for Chapter 19).

- First the input string is parsed and validated into a simple structure encoding the hierarchy of the nested parenthesized expressions.
- Then, popping the free variables one by one, the \(*\)-eliminates are iteratively constructed (here "\(*\)" stands for any free variable);
- each round of \(*\)-eliminate calculation, in turn, iteratively applies the Principles illustrated earlier in the chapter.

## Actual code

The following runs with Python 3 (as for Python 2, probably the only fussy parts are some `print`

statement,
however) and should be run in a console: `python3 combinatorSolver.py`

. It will interactively ask
for the expression to solve and output the corresponding solution.

```
#!/usr/bin/env python3
'''
combinatorSolver.py : a solver for combinators,
either based on the SKI- or the BCSI-basis,
that outputs the solution A to an expression
of type
Axyz...=X
where:
- "A" has to be literally "A"
- variables are lowercase letters
- X is an expression made of (properly parenthesized)
combinators in the basis and variables.
Depending on the basis chosen, X may be subject
to additional constraints. See below for the
(very limited) command-line options.
This programs solves the coding exercises of
"To Mock a Mockingbird", chapters 18 & 19.
[
Written by hemydactylus,
https://github.com/hemidactylus.
The general idea for parsers comes from:
"Programming in Haskell",
Graham Hutton,
Cambridge University Press,
(Chapter 8, 'Functional parsers')
]
'''
import sys
# variables are all lowercase letter symbols
variables=list(map(chr,range(ord('a'),ord('z')+1)))
'''
PARSERS. Each of those returns a pair (a 2-tuple)
(item,unconsumed part).
If there are some troubles,
(None,unconsumed part)
is returned.
Note there is no explicit parser combinator,
since the job of parsing here is, all-in-all,
rather simple.
The parsed expression has single birds (variables, primitive-birds)
represented as (single-char) items in a list, each nesting
of parentheses being mapped to a nesting of lists.
Thus, for instance, expression
"x(y(yx))"
is parsed to:
['x', ['y', ['y', 'x']]]
(enable debugging with the 'D' option to see this representation)
All parser here inherit and pass forward an argument
specifying the mode of operation of the exercise,
i.e. SKI or BCSI.
'''
def parseFromList(inStr,charList):
'''
A general parser that extract a single char
from the input string, if the former falls
within a list of allowed ones.
It is used later, curried in the second argument,
to generate a parser for variables.
'''
if inStr:
fChar=inStr[0]
if fChar in charList:
return fChar,inStr[1:]
else:
return None,inStr
else:
return None,inStr
def parseBracket(inStr,mode):
'''
A parser for "(expression)" type of structures.
'''
if inStr and inStr[0]=='(':
inExpr,rst=parseTerm(inStr[1:],mode)
if inExpr and rst[0]==')':
return inExpr,rst[1:]
else:
return None,inStr
else:
return None,inStr
def parseFactor(inStr,mode):
'''
A parser for a single factor of some kind:
either a bracket, a var or a (primitive-)bird.
'''
parseBird=lambda inStr,mode: parseFromList(inStr,modesMap[mode])
parseVariable=lambda inStr,mode: parseFromList(inStr,variables)
factorOptions=[parseVariable,parseBird,parseBracket]
some=False
for parserOption in factorOptions:
subterm,subrest=parserOption(inStr,mode)
if subterm:
some=True
return subterm,subrest
if not some:
return None,inStr
def parseTerm(inStr,mode):
'''
A parser for a full expression, which packs the result
into a list, thereby building the nested-list structure
of the parsed expression.
'''
terms=[]
rst=inStr
while True:
subfac,subrest=parseFactor(rst,mode)
if subfac:
terms.append(subfac)
rst=subrest
else:
break
if terms:
return terms,rst
else:
return None,rst
# End of the parsers part.
'''
ELIMINATORS. This part implements the alpha-eliminate
and distinguished-alpha-eliminate calculation according
to the recursive algorithms presented in Chapters 18 and 19.
They are collected in a single entry-point function
as seen in the 'alphaEliminate' function.
Again, the mode of operation is passed along.
'''
def unwrap(uexp):
'''
this removes unnecessary parentheses from a structured expression.
'''
if isinstance(uexp,list) and len(uexp)==1:
return unwrap(uexp[0])
else:
return uexp
def alphaEliminate(expr,var,mode):
return eliminatorMap[mode](expr,var,mode)
def SKIalphaEliminate(expr,var,mode):
'''
returns a 'var'-eliminate of expression 'expr',
by trying to apply principles 1-4 of Chapter 18,
in that order.
'mode' is passed just to keep the same calling pattern,
but at this point is ignored.
'''
# de-normalise 1-item lists to simple letters
if isinstance(expr,list) and len(expr)==1:
expr=unwrap(expr)
# P1
if not isinstance(expr,list) and expr==var:
return 'I'
# P2
if var not in collectVariables(expr):
return ['K',expr]
# P3
if isinstance(expr,list):
if var not in collectVariables(expr[:-1]) and unwrap(expr[-1])==var:
return unwrap(expr[:-1])
# P4 if all else fails
return ['S',alphaEliminate(expr[:-1],var,mode),alphaEliminate(unwrap(expr[-1]),var,mode)]
def distinguishedAlphaEliminate(expr,var,mode):
'''
returns a distinguished 'var'-eliminate of expression 'expr',
by applying the principles at the end of Chapter 19
'mode' is passed just to keep the same calling pattern,
but at this point is ignored.
'''
# raise an error if var does not occur at all in expr:
if var not in collectVariables(expr):
raise ValueError(('Variable "%s" absent in expression:'+ \
' cannot find distinguished eliminate') % var)
# de-normalise 1-item lists to simple letters
if isinstance(expr,list) and len(expr)==1:
expr=unwrap(expr)
# R1
if not isinstance(expr,list) and expr==var:
return 'I'
# R2
if var not in collectVariables(expr[:-1]) and expr[-1]==var:
return unwrap(expr[:-1])
# R3, the recursive one. expr must be (...X...)Y
exprY=expr[-1]
exprX=expr[:-1]
# R3a
if var in collectVariables(exprX) and var in collectVariables(exprY):
return [
'S',
unwrap(distinguishedAlphaEliminate(exprX,var,mode)),
unwrap(distinguishedAlphaEliminate(exprY,var,mode)),
]
# R3b
elif var not in collectVariables(exprX) and var in collectVariables(exprY):
return [
'B',
unwrap(exprX),
unwrap(distinguishedAlphaEliminate(exprY,var,mode)),
]
# R3c
elif var in collectVariables(exprX) and var not in collectVariables(exprY):
return [
'C',
unwrap(distinguishedAlphaEliminate(exprX,var,mode)),
unwrap(exprY),
]
else:
raise ValueError('Unclassified case found with var "%s" and expr=%s' % (var,expr))
# various utilities employed in calculating eliminates
def collectVariables(twig):
'''
collection, as a set, of all variables
encountered traversing the
provided tree. Depth-first.
'''
varSet=set()
for elem in twig:
if isinstance(elem,list):
varSet.update(collectVariables(elem))
else:
varSet.add(elem)
return varSet & set(variables)
def nestedMultilinePrintExpr(e,lvl=0):
'''
Debugging tool, not used in the final code.
Returns None!
A pretty print of any expression in a hierarchical fashion, e.g.
x(y(xKx)x(xx))
becomes
x
y
x
K
x
x
x
x
'''
if isinstance(e,list):
for itm in e:
nestedMultilinePrintExpr(itm,lvl+1)
else:
print('%s%s' % (' '*lvl,e))
def nicePrint(expr):
'''
a nice printer for expression, which restores the single-line
parenthesized form.
'''
uexp=unwrap(expr)
if isinstance(uexp,list):
return '(%s)' % ''.join(map(nicePrint,uexp))
else:
return uexp
# SETTINGS
'''
For the modes of operation, a dictionary is formed for each of:
- the allowed primitive birds
- the exact *-eliminator calculation function
- the example to show in the console print
'''
modesMap={
'SKI': 'SKI',
'BCSI': 'BCSI',
}
eliminatorMap={
'SKI': SKIalphaEliminate,
'BCSI': distinguishedAlphaEliminate,
}
exampleMap={
'SKI': 'Axy=xy(Sx(Ky))',
'BCSI': 'Axyz=xz(zy)',
}
def main():
'''
The core of the program, which handles interaction with
the user, performs the calculation and prints the result.
'''
# command-line options
params=sys.argv[1:]
debugMode=False
mode='SKI'
for p in params:
if p in modesMap:
mode=p
elif p=='D':
debugMode=True
else:
print('# Unknown command-line option "%s", ignoring it' % p)
# messages to the user
print('*'*50)
print('** Combinator Solver **')
print('** (command-line option: SKI (default) or BCSI) **')
print('** ( Also: D for debug ) **')
print('*'*50)
print('>> Enter the expression to solve [e.g. "%s"]' % exampleMap[mode])
print(' ',end='')
sys.stdout.flush()
fullExpr=sys.stdin.readline().strip()
# retrieval and parsing of the input from the user
parts=[part.strip() for part in fullExpr.split('=')]
if len(parts)!=2:
print('# Please provide an expression with exactly one equal sign')
return
else:
definition,rawExpression=parts
# check for expression X validity
parsedExpr,rest=parseTerm(rawExpression,mode)
if parsedExpr is None or rest!='':
print('# Syntax error in expression X')
return
# is the definition a proper definition?
if len(definition)==0 or definition[0]!='A':
print('# Definition must start with "A"')
return
varlist=list(definition[1:])
if len(varlist)==0 or any(map(lambda l: l not in variables, varlist)):
print('# Definition must contain only one or more a-z variables')
return
if len(varlist)!=len(set(varlist)):
print('# Duplicate variables in definition not allowed')
return
# Everything seems OK
# Proceed with the solution
if debugMode:
print(' --> List of variables:\n %s' % varlist)
print(' --> Expression X:\n %s' % parsedExpr)
# iteratively, eliminate after eliminate, construct the full solution
thisExpr=parsedExpr
for alpha in varlist[::-1]:
if debugMode:
print(' --> %s-eliminate of %s: ' % (alpha,thisExpr))
thisExpr=alphaEliminate(thisExpr,alpha,mode)
if debugMode:
print(' %s' % thisExpr)
print('>> Final result:\n A=%s' % nicePrint(thisExpr))
if __name__=='__main__':
main()
```

## Credits

I wrote the code from scratch. However, the organisation of the parser system, used here to reduce the given expression (a string) into a structured object made of nested lists, is a simplified adaptation of concepts taken from this useful book on Haskell programming:

```
"Programming in Haskell",
Graham Hutton,
Cambridge University Press,
(Chapter 8, 'Functional parsers')
```